Survey In Schools

Baseline Assessment of the Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Practices of School Children regarding Peace, Conflict Transformation and Life Skills

 

A part of the 
Engaging Young People in Peacebuilding and Conflict Transformation Project

 

 

Conducted by:

 

Drug Free Pakistan Foundation

1st Floor House 1/1 – 3 P, P.E.C.H.S Block 6 Shahrah-e-Faisal Karachi, Pakistan

 

Acknowledgements

 

Drug Free Pakistan Foundation would like to acknowledge the valuable input of Farheen Naveed for providing us with her professional insight and expert opinion. 

DFPF would also like to acknowledge Andeel Ali and Laila Lodhia, for their vital contribution in terms of literature review, planning and drafting the baseline questionnaire, data tabulation, assessment and report writing.

DFPF would further like to acknowledge, Ayaz Afzal and Noman Razi for data collection from the primary respondents. And Muhammad Ali and Naveed Iqbal for data entry.

Moreover, we would like to extend thanks to Mr. Faiz Ahmed, Director, Department of Education, District Central Karachi, for granting us the permission to conduct this survey in their schools and collaborating with our field staff at every moment.

Drug Free Pakistan Foundation has sole responsibility for the quality of, and content of this report.

For more information on Countering Violent Extremism through Peace, please contact Drug Free Pakistan Foundation at:

1/1 - 3P, Block-6, PECHS, 

Karachi-Pakistan, 

Tel +92-21-34371105, or refer to the website https://www.dfpf.org.pk

 

Our Researchers:

 

Farheen Naveed

 

Farheen Naveed is the director of DFPF, serving as the consultant and resource person on this project regarding the capacity building of the teachers. She has more than a decade of experience in the domains of drug addiction (internationally certified) and youth empowerment She is the Humphrey fellow from Virginia Commonwealth University, USA.

 

Andeel Ali

Andeel Ali is a Developmental Activist carrying over 10 years of experience. Andeel excels in designing and implementing capacity building and behavior-change-communication programs. He is currently working as the Content Manager at DFPF.

 

Laila Lodhia

Laila Lodhia is a clinical psychologist with over 7 years of experience in the clinical field. She is currently specializing in the field of drug addiction, working towards the aim of removing the stigma on drug addiction, especially for women, in Pakistan. She is currently working in the capacity of Training Manager with DFPF.

 

 

Baseline Assessment of the Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Practices of School Children regarding Peace, Conflict Transformation and Life Skills

 

Background:

 

This survey is part of a project called, Engaging young people in peacebuilding and conflict transformation. In this project ten schools from the District Central Karachi. The purpose of this project is to train teachers working in the public and private sector about peace building, and countering violent extremism through various avenues, which are a combination of both interpersonal and intrapersonal strategies. This effort is appropriate at this point in time because, as it can be observed, violent extremism, has not only been a problem in past history, but continues to be a growing problem even today, especially in our society.

 

This project is being implemented for the following reasons:

 

1.  To increase awareness on violent extremism and countering violent extremism

2.  To promote knowledge on self-awareness and improvement

3.  To prepare the youth and engage them in social action projects to promote peace

4. To provide teachers with the necessary tools to facilitate students in engaging in peace activities

5.  To define conflict and build capacity for conflict mitigation

 

The ultimate aim is to make Pakistan a peaceful state and bring sanity and peace to this nation that has fallen victim to maddening violence. This manual will help in training the teachers and enabling them to incorporate the values of peacemaking, reconciliation, and conflict prevention into their daily curriculum when working with students.

 

We believe that the youth is the most important age group of our society, as they are the ambassadors of tomorrow, responsible for bringing about the change that is necessary in our nation. If properly equipped with the necessary repertoire and knowledge, they can achieve this feat with precision and ease, combine with their inherent talent and creativity.

 

Abstract:

The purpose of the survey is to measure the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, practices and skills of the children studying in the 6 schools (established in the district central) selected for the establishment of the peace clubs.

 

The measurement tool used in this survey is based on two different parts, part one comprising of 11 multiple choices based questions and part two comprises of fifteen close ended questions. The idea is to verify the data that is received from the respondents. Thus, getting a clearer picture of the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, practices and skills they currently have.

 

 

Executive Summary:

The Baseline Survey on CVE Knowledge was designed with the intent to measure respondents’ existing knowledge about life skills and their understanding on the concepts of positive and negative peace, conflict transformation, and assertiveness. Our hypothesis was “at least 50% of respondents will be misinformed on the concepts of positive and negative peace, conflict transformation, and assertiveness.” Through data analysis it was indicated that our hypotheses was disproved; it was further revealed that the youth has an optimistic view about peace, conflict transformation, and life skills, yet they lack the necessary skills to implement their knowledge towards building a positive society and actively engage in the conflict transformation process to bring about the desired change in the society in Pakistan. Individual analysis of each question and their given responses is as follows: 

 

  • What is peace?

    • 53% of respondents believed that peace is the equivalent the absence of war and conflict, while 12% believed that peace translates to “Getting everyone to agree with you”. Only 36% of respondents were familiar with the actual definition of peace being “presence of economic development and prosperity”. 

 

  • What is conflict?

    • Analysis revealed that respondents are unfamiliar with the true definition of conflict, with only 17% answering correctly (a serious incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interests). 40% translated conflict to “two people fighting over the same thing”, while the majority (42%) believed conflict to be the inability to agree on something. 

 

  • What role can youth play in conflict resolution?

    • Only 26% of respondents seemed to believe that the youth can play an active part in conflict resolution by employing critical and creative skills, while 19% falsely believed that the youth cannot resolve conflicts as a result of being powerless. More than half the respondents (54%) believed that thinking critically about an issue and reaching a mutually agreed consensus could serve as an adequate measure to resolve conflict. Analysis of this question indicates that the youth believe in strength in numbers, working together to achieve a target, which in itself is a positive factor. However, the youth still needs to be educated and given insight into the power they hold. 

 

  • How do you solve a conflict?

    • The majority of the respondents are very aware on how to resolve a conflict --70% understanding that resolving a conflict can be done by listening to the other person’s viewpoint and finding a mutual ground.  14% believe a conflict is resolved by making the other person agree with your viewpoint or opinion by force, while 13% believe that a conflict can be resolved by agreeing with the other person, regardless of what they are saying. 

 

  • What is conflict resolution?

    • The majority of the respondents know the concept of conflict resolution (a way for two or more parties to find a peaceful solution to a disagreement among them), while 12% believe that conflict resolution translates to solving an issue by crook or hook or using any means possible for achieve a solution as per one’s own will and 23% understanding conflict resolution to be debating and dialoguing on an issue to achieve consensus. 

 

 

  • What role can the youth play in promoting peace?

    • 43% of the respondents are aware that they can play a part in promoting peace by indulging in life skills based education, while 42% believe that promoting peace involves getting everyone to follow rules. 12%  unfortunately believe that the youth can’t really do much to promote peace.

 

 

  • Does anger solve problems?

    • The majority of the respondents (70%) understand that anger is not a solution to solving problems, while 8% believe that anger sometimes helps in solving problems, and 2% believe that anger is the only solution to problems. 

 

 

  • What measures can one take to get one’s message across?

    • 77% are aware that using peaceful and constitutional methods is a fruitful way to get one’s message across, while 12% believe that attacking civilians and destroying public property to get their message across is the only viable option. Unfortunately 8% believe that no one cares about what they have to say, and therefore do not make active efforts for their voice to be heard. 

 

 

  • What is self-awareness?

    • Although 42% understand that self-awareness involves having a clear understanding of one’s values, vision, and purpose of life, 35% understand self-awareness to incorporate conscious knowledge of one’s own character and feelings, which in a sense is also right. 23% falsely understand self-awareness as having a proper bio data of one’s own self and one’s family 

 

  • What is assertiveness?

    • 60% of respondents understand the concept of assertiveness correctly, understanding it as getting your point across firmly without being offensive to the other person. 23% think assertiveness means making the other person do what we want, while 14% think assertiveness means disagreeing with the other person. 

 

 

  • What is empathy?

    • 57% are aware that empathy incorporates the ability to understand and share feelings of another. 23% understand empathy to involve being sad for another person when they are going through a tough time, while 19%  think empathy means feeling pity for another person.

 

Overall data analysis indicates that although the majority of respondents are well aware with the concepts of how to promote peace, resolve conflict, how to get their message cross, how to solve problems and conflicts, and what role they can play as youth, we still cannot ignore the respondents with incorrect beliefs about these same concepts. We can hypothesize that the individuals who answered incorrectly, have been brought up to believe and think the way they do as a result of their environment and their failed efforts on a societal level. These respondents have perhaps always seen conflict either not being resolved, or being resolved through violence aggression. On the other hand, however, the majority of the respondents seem to have an optimistic viewpoint on countering violent extremism, and seem to be motivated towards promoting peace in the society. 

 

 

In the second questionnaire, their subjective answers indicates a positive attitude and outlook towards resolving war and conflict through empathy, assertiveness, good morals and values, and accepting their own mistakes. They seem to have a clear understanding that war does not lead to peace, while furthermore believing in the concepts of equality and forgiveness. 

 

  • I know how to resolve conflicts peacefully

    • Out of the 107 respondents, 66% believe they know how to resolve conflicts peacefully, while 7% do not. The remaining 26% are doubtful on their abilities to do so. 

 

 

  • I have a clear set of values, a vision, mission and purpose of life

    • 60% of respondents believe they do have a set of values, a mission and purpose in life, while 17% believe they do not, and 21% remain doubtful. 

 

  • I know what assertiveness is

    • 57% of respondents believe they know what assertiveness is (which correlates positively with the 60% in the first questionnaire), while 27% do not, and 17% remain doubtful.

 

 

  • I consider myself empathic towards others

    • 65% consider themselves empathic towards others (which positively correlates with the 57% on the first questionnaire in which respondents understand the concept of empathy), while 17% do not. The remaining 17% remain uncertain. 

 

 

  • Do you know someone who had been a victim of a terrorist attack?

    • 58% have never known someone who has been a victim of a terrorist attack, while 28% have. The remaining 10% remain uncertain. 

 

 

  • I believe that Peace is achieved through war

    • 63% of respondents believe that war is not the answer to peace, while 28% believe that war is the solution to peace. 8% remain uncertain. 

 

 

 

  • I believe that Anger can solve problems

    • 68% of respondents believe that anger cannot solve problems (which can be positively correlated with the 70% on the first questionnaire), while at the same time 68% also believe that anger does solve problems. 9% remain uncertain. 

 

  • I believe that “Might is Right!” 

    • 46% of respondents believe that “Might is Right”, while 27% believe that it is not, and 26% remain uncertain. 

 

  • I believe that Good governance and transparency is possible only through Democracy

    • 56% believe that good governance and transparency is possible only through democracy while 23% believe it is not. 19% remain uncertain. 

 

 

  • Is vigilantism a solution?

    • 45% understand that vigilantism is not a solution to conflict, while at the same time 41% believe that it is. 12% remain uncertain. 

 

 

  • I accept my mistakes

    • The majority of the respondents (77%) seem to be able to accept their mistakes, while 10% cannot. The remaining 9% remain uncertain. 

 

 

 

  • I seek to resolve conflicts even when I feel I wasn’t the one to cause any trouble

    • 57% of respondents attempt to resolve conflicts even when they feel they weren’t the ones to cause trouble, as a means of achieving peace. 19% do not put themselves in that situation, while 20% sometimes do and sometimes don’t. 

 

 

  • I believe in forgiving and pardoning

    • 84% of respondents believe in forgiving and pardoning, while 9% do not and 2% sometimes do. 

 

  • I believe everyone is equal regardless of one’s ethnicity, class, gender, religion, sect, nationality or social status

    • The majority of the respondents (76%) believe that everyone is equal regardless of their ethnicity, class, gender, religion, sect, nationality, or social status, while 11% do not believe in equality. 9% can’t seem to decide. 

 

 

  • Subjecting someone to cruel behavior just because one doesn’t acknowledges other’s views? 

    • 85% believe that subjecting someone to cruel behavior as a result of not acknowledging another viewpoints is wrong, while 9% believe it is okay. 2% believe it depends on the situation and can sometimes be okay. 

 

Conclusion

The overall data analysis indicates that although the majority of respondents are well aware with the concepts of how to promote peace, resolve conflict, how to get their message cross, how to solve problems and conflicts, and what role they can play as youth, we still cannot ignore the respondents with incorrect beliefs about these same concepts. We can hypothesize that the individuals who answered incorrectly, have been brought up to believe and think the way they do as a result of their environment and their failed efforts on a societal level. These respondents have perhaps always seen conflict either not being resolved, or being resolved through violence and/or aggression. On the other hand, however, the majority of the respondents seem to have an optimistic viewpoint on countering violent extremism, and seem to be motivated towards promoting peace in the society. Furthermore, their subjective answers indicates a positive attitude and outlook towards resolving war and conflict through empathy, assertiveness, good morals and values, and accepting their own mistakes. They seem to have a clear understanding that war does not lead to peace, while furthermore believing in the concepts of equality and forgiveness.